Writing unit tests¶
Now that you understand the principle of tests and how to run them, it's time to write some. We will start with simple unit tests using doctest syntax.
We will start by showing how to create a simple unit test with doctest syntax. There is nothing Zope- or Plone-specific about this test. This type of test is ideal for methods and classes that perform some kind of well-defined operation on primitives or simple objects. The doctest syntax is well-suited for explaining the inputs and outputs. Since the tests are relatively few and/or descriptive, keeping the tests, documentation and code close together makes sense.
Tests are usually found in a tests/ sub-package. In the example.tests package, we have created a file called tests/test_simple_doctest.py. This sets up a test suite to run doctests in the doc strings in the module example.tests.context. Let’s look at the test setup first:
"""This is the setup for a doctest where the actual test examples are held in docstrings in a module. Here, we are not using anything Zope-specific at all. We could of course use the Zope 3 Component Architecture in the setup if we wanted. For that, take a look at test_zope3_doctest.py. However, we *do* use the zope.testing package, which provides improved version of Python's standard DocTestSuite, DocFileSuite and so on. If you don't want this dependency, just use doctest.DocTestSuite. """ import unittest import zope.testing import example.tests.context def setUp(test): """We can use this to set up anything that needs to be available for each test. It is run before each test, i.e. for each docstring that contains doctests. Look at the Python unittest and doctest module documentation to learn more about how to prepare state and pass it into various tests. """ def tearDown(test): """This is the companion to setUp - it can be used to clean up the test environment after each test. """ def test_suite(): return unittest.TestSuite(( # Here, we tell the test runner to execute the tests in the given # module. The setUp and tearDown methods can be used to perform # test-specific setup and tear-down. zope.testing.doctest.DocTestSuite(example.tests.context, setUp=setUp, # setUp and tearDown are optional! tearDown=tearDown), ))
There are a lot of comments here, and we show how to use setUp() and tearDown() methods for additional initialisation and clean-up, if necessary. The test runner will call the test_suite() method and expect a TestSuite object back. If desired, we could have put multiple test suites referring to multiple modules into the TestSuite that is being returned.
Here is the actual code under test, in context.py:
from zope.interface import implements from example.tests.interfaces import IContext class Context(object): """An object used for testing. We will register an adapter from this interface to IUpperCaser in the test setup. Here's how you use it. First, import the class. >>> from example.tests.context import Context Then in-stan-ti-ate it (with me so far?): >>> my_context = Context() Okay, here's the tricky bit ... now we need to set the title: >>> my_context.title = u"Some string!" Phew ... did that work? >>> my_context.title u'Some string!' Yeah! """ implements(IContext) def __init__(self, title=u""): self.title = title
Here is how we may run the tests from a buildout:
./bin/instance test -s example.tests -t context Running unit tests: Running: .... Ran 4 tests with 0 failures and 0 errors in 0.071 seconds.